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Bell Miner

 
Introduction:
Medium-large, solid bird, mostly olive-green with bright yellow bill, red-orange eye patch, yellow legs and feet.
Identification:
A medium-large and solidly built honeyeater that is the smallest of the miners. It is mostly olive-green, with a short, down-curved, bright yellow bill, a red-orange bare eye patch, and orange-yellow feet and legs. It has a squaretail. The male is slightly larger, but otherwise the sexes are similar. Young birds are duller and browner, with a paler eye patch. Body size up to 20 cm.
Max. Size:
20 cm.
Distribution:
Endemic to eastern and south-eastern mainland Australia, the Bell Miner ranges from Gympie, Queensland, to Melbourne, Victoria, but is restricted to coastal and mountain regions.
Habitat:
Open eucalypt forests and woodlands with a dense shrubby understorey; occasionally found in suburban areas with remnant bushland. Mainly found in the temperate zone in broad gullies of foothills or on coastal plains, often at edges of rainforest areas. They are also found in suburban areas, including remnant bushland, parks and gardens, especially around creeks or other water sources (e.g. swimming pools, bird baths), where eucalypts and dense shrubs have been retained.
Biology:
More often heard than seen, the birds live in large colonies of 8 - 200 birds and aggressively defend their territories against all intruders. They mainly eat insects, especially psyllids and their lerps (sugary secretions used as protective shelters by the tiny psyllid insects) from the foliage of eucalypts. They also eat nectar and manna.  It has been shown that Bell Miners maintain psyllid populations at high levels by protecting them from other birds and by maintaining sufficiently large territories so that they don't over-feed on the psyllids themselves.The call is a sweet, musical, bell-like 'tink'. All birds in a colony call all day, with calls starting just before sunrise and finishing just after sunset. They have a complex social structure and are 'obligate co-operative breeders', which means that they are always helped by usually young or unpaired birds, but may also include other breeding adults who are also raising their own young. Interestingly, males of breeding age are the most 'helpful' auxiliaries, often helping more than one breeding pair. The helpers defend the nest, feed the young, clean the nest and sometimes feed the female when she is incubating the eggs. Both parents also engage in all nest and feeding duties, but the female builds the thin, cup-shaped nest and incubates the eggs alone. Predators of eggs and young include: Grey Currawongs, Laughing Kookaburras, Common Blackbirds, Brown Goshawks, ravens, Eastern Brown Snake and Copperhead. Can also be parasitised by cuckoos, including the Pallid Cuckoo and the Fantailed Cuckoo. Breeding season: All year round; mostly June to November. Clutch size: 1 to 3, usually 2 Incubation: 15 days Time in nest: 15 days .The Bell Miner is adversely affected by the loss of dense shrubby vegetation along creeks and in gullies, especially as a result of fire and clearing for houses, roads and agriculture, as well as 'flood control' alterations to creeks.
Other Common Names:

 
Related Objects:

Related Objects

O.50354 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Gippsland , (37 15' S , 148 30' E), Aug 1893

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.4221 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.43080 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Lynchs Ck, Via Yarramundi , (33 38' S , 150 38' E), 5 Jan 1969

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.4473 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.45355 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Tumbi Umbi, N Of Gosford , (33 22' S , 151 27' E), 22 Feb 1975
O.47112 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Beaury State Forest: Tooloom Scrub , (28 31' S , 152 17' E), 25 Nov 1978
O.47653 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Upper Allyn R, Via Eccleston , (32 10' S , 151 30' E), 28 Jul 1979

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.48130 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Beaconsfield , (38 3' S , 145 15' E), 20 Nov 1909

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.50353 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Merriman Ck, Gippsland , (38 17' S , 146 41' E), 5 Sep 1909

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.42040 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Shaws Ck, Via Yarramundi , (33 40' S , 150 39' E), 15 Jan 1966

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.50355 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 30 Sep 1906
O.51578 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Manning River , (31 55' S , 151 28' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.55438 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Beaconsfield , (38 3' S , 145 15' E), 14 Nov 1909

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.48283 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Briagolong , (37 50' S , 147 4' E), 20 Sep 1915

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.36623 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 2 Sep 1906

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29184 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bundanoon , (34 39' S , 150 18' E), 1910

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29185 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bundanoon , (34 39' S , 150 18' E), 1910

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29186 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wyong , (33 17' S , 151 26' E), 26 Jun 1923

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29187 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wallacia , (33 52' S , 150 39' E), Apr 1913

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29188 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 6 Jun 1904

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.4219 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.35951 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Cardinia Ck, Beaconsfield , (37 58' S , 145 23' E), 19 Dec 1926

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.4220 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.3686 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Murwillumbah: Tweed R , (28 20' S , 153 24' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.39144 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Tyringham , (30 13' S , 152 32' E), 11 Jul 1951

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.39754 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Tyringham , (30 13' S , 152 32' E), 11 Jul 1951

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.41299 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Tumbi Umbi, N Of Gosford (Tuggerah Lakes) , (33 22' S , 151 27' E), 17 Dec 1964
O.57529 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Toonambar State Forest, 2 Km N Of Iron Pot Ck , (28 33' S , 154 45' E), 24 Jan 1984

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.42049 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Shaws Ck, Via Yarramundi , (33 40' S , 150 39' E), 15 Jan 1966

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.35950 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Briagolong , (37 50' S , 147 4' E), 24 Aug 1917

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.68895 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Kurrajong Heights , (33 32' S , 150 38' E), 15 Oct 1951

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29183 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Cassilis , (32 S , 149 59' E), Jul 1908
O.73948.001 - Tissue sample - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) ,

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7683 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7682 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7681 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7680 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7679 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7678 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7677 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7676 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.7675 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),
O.70232 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mount Lindesay State Forest , (28 21' 24" S , 152 40' 35" E), 11 Aug 1999

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.55812 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 2 Oct 1899
O.65807 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Werombi , (33 59' S , 150 35' E), 13 Oct 1995
O.57528 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Toonambar State Forest, 2 Km N Of Iron Pot Ck , (28 33' S , 152 45' E), 24 Jan 1984
O.57530 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Toonumbar State Forest, Murray Scrub Rd, Iron Pot Ck , (28 33' S , 152 45' E), 24 Jan 1984

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.57896 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Melbourne: Upwey , (37 54' S , 145 20' E), 9 Sep 1928
O.59295 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Donaldson State Forest, 8 Km Ne Of Woodenbong , (28 20' S , 152 41' E), 18 Jan 1986
O.60071 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Toonumbar State Forest , (28 28' S , 152 43' E), 24 Jan 1984
O.70231 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mount Lindesay State Forest , (28 21' 24" S , 152 40' 35" E), 11 Aug 1999
O.64871 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Healesville , (37 39' S , 145 32' E), 4 May 1993

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.69311 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Kurrajong , (33 33' S , 150 40' E), 12 Sep 1954
O.66131 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 5 Jan 1996
O.66317 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mardi , (32 10' S , 151 12' E), 1 Mar 1995
O.67097 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Lochiel Via Pambula, Back Creek Road , (36 56' S , 149 48' E), 8 Aug 1996

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.67396 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Victoria, Cardinia Ck, Beaconsfield , (37 58' S , 145 23' E), 12 Oct 1909
O.68741 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wyoming , (33 25' S , 151 22' E), Feb 1996
O.72837 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - AUSTRALIA, ,
O.73951.001 - Tissue sample - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) ,
B.9267 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bellingen District , (30 27' S , 152 54' E),
A.9696 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Queensland, Darling Downs , (27 11' S , 151 15' E),
A.9695 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, Queensland, Darling Downs , (27 11' S , 151 15' E),
O.73951 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) ,
O.73948 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) ,
B.9269 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bellingen District , (30 27' S , 152 54' E),
B.9270 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bellingen District , (30 27' S , 152 54' E),
O.71226 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71225 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71224 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71222 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71223 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71069 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni: House , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 23 Aug 2005
O.71068 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni: House , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 23 Aug 2005
O.71067 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni: House , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 23 Aug 2005
O.71066 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni: House , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 23 Aug 2005
O.71065 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni: House , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 23 Aug 2005
O.71064 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71063 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005
O.71062 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Mandeni , (36 50' S , 149 55' E), 26 Aug 2005

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.20804 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wyong , (33 17' S , 151 26' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.20805 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wyong , (33 17' S , 151 26' E), 26 Jun 1893

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.20806 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Wyong , (33 17' S , 151 26' E), 26 Jun 1893

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.21434 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Illawarra , (34 26' S , 150 53' E),
B.9268 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bellingen District , (30 27' S , 152 54' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.21436 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 7 Dec 1891

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.16299 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Kincumber , (33 28' S , 151 24' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.2275 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ballina, Richmond River , (28 52' S , 153 34' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.2276 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ballina, Richmond River , (28 52' S , 153 34' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.23213 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Illawarra , (34 26' S , 150 53' E), May 1868

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.23214 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Clyde River , (35 13' S , 150 16' E), 27 Aug 1864

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.24892 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 25 Nov 1899

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.21435 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Illawarra , (34 26' S , 150 53' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.16061 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),
B.9271 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Bellingen District , (30 27' S , 152 54' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.13039 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.13645 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 12 Nov 1896

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.13646 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E), 12 Nov 1896

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.15146 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.17766 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Kiama , (34 40' S , 150 51' E), Dec 1864

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.15147 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Ourimbah , (33 22' S , 151 22' E),

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.17765 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Kiama , (34 40' S , 150 51' E), Dec 1864

(c) assumed Australian Museum.

O.29182 - Manorina melanophrys (Latham, 1802) - Australia, New South Wales, Cassilis , (32 S , 149 59' E), Jul 1908